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C9530-519 - IBM API Connect v. 5.0.5 Solution Implementation - BrainDump Information

Vendor Name : IBM
Exam Code : C9530-519
Exam Name : IBM API Connect v. 5.0.5 Solution Implementation
Questions and Answers : 74 Q & A
Updated On : December 17, 2018
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C9530-519 exam Dumps Source : IBM API Connect v. 5.0.5 Solution Implementation

Test Code : C9530-519
Test Name : IBM API Connect v. 5.0.5 Solution Implementation
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 74 Real Questions

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IBM IBM API Connect v.

Migration from IBM Bluemix facts connect API (actions) to IBM Watson information API (records flows) | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

right here assistance will support IBM Bluemix statistics join consumers of the statistics Load rest API to port to the IBM Watson records API information flows carrier.

evaluation of pastime JSON vs records stream JSON

At a excessive stage, the pastime JSON and statistics circulate JSON constructions achieve a generally equivalent effect, albeit in a a little bit distinct manner. This doc will summarize the main differences. (notice that property naming has changed from being “camelCase” in activities to “running_case” in statistics flows.)

beneath is a abstract of the main features within the inputDocument of the activity json. here is the fundamental move definition. many of the aspects are not obligatory and default behaviour happens if they do not exist.

activity inputDocument structure:

sourceOptions targetOptions sourcesconnectiontables[] shapingPipelines[]sourceTableshapingOperations[] targetsconnectiontables[]

despite the fact, the facts move equivalent has a plenty cleaner, easier structure.

facts circulate entity structure:

pipelinepipelines[]nodes[]

In exercise json, metadata is one after the other defined for the sources and objectives, and then referenced within the shapingPipelines by the use of using described statistics sets. These are referenced to create a directed acyclic graph (DAG), the linkages of which represent how the facts is processed. The equal thought exists in records flows, apart from there isn't any need for the metadata definition, and sources and pursuits are just described as binding nodes as part of the nodes checklist in the pipeline. in a similar fashion, the equal of an operation in an activity is an execution node in an information move. within the records circulate, the nodes include input and output port definitions with IDs which are equivalent to statistics units in actions.

Binding node examples

the first illustration has an easy connection to a source database desk. The connection is referenced without delay in the binding node (here is in the supply component to endeavor json) and the interaction homes are a part of the connection area (whereas in endeavor json, they are in a separate “sourceOptions” area). This binding node has one output which has a “port” identity source1output, pleasing within that binding node.

"id": "source1","class": "binding","output": "identification": "source1output","connection": "houses": "schema_name": "MyDatabaseSchema","table_name": "MySourceTable",,"ref": "UniqueConnectionId",

The 2d illustration has an easy connection to a goal database table. The connection homes are dealt with in the exact same method. This binding node has one enter which “links” to the first instance (the link consists of the node id source1as smartly as the port identity source1output), to create the least difficult of pipelines.

"identity": "target1","classification": "binding","input": "link": "node_id_ref": "source1","port_id_ref": "source1output","id": "targetInput1","connection": "homes": "schema_name": "MyDatabaseSchema","table_name": "MyTargetTable","table_action": "change","ref": "UniqueConnectionId", Execution node example

The illustration below can be added to the node list containing the instance above (via changing the target input link “node_id_ref” property to operation1 and “port_id_ref” property to outputPort1) to insert it into the pipeline. Like an endeavor operation, there's an “op” but the equivalent of “argumentBindings” is “parameters” and as outlined earlier than, “inputDatasets” and “outputDatasets” are now “inputs” and “outputs”.

"identity": "operation1","class": "execution_node","op": "com.ibm.wdp.transformer.FreeformCode","parameters": "FREEFORM_CODE": "filter(CUST_NO > 100004)","inputs": ["link": "node_id_ref": "source1","port_id_ref": "source1output","id": "inputPort1"],"outputs": ["id": "outputPort1"],

For greater tips about binding nodes and execution nodes in information flows see Getting all started > records Flows within the Watson information API documentation.

API equivalents

right here tables show activities APIs and their facts circulation service equivalents.

activities and statistics flows activity and records movement runs

For greater information in regards to the records movement APIs see Documentation > data Flows in the Watson facts API documentation.


Modernizing IBM i Apps with Microservices | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

November 7, 2018 Alex Woodie

utility modernization potential various things to diverse people. For some, it may be turning a 5250 reveal into an internet or cellular interface, or changing database access with SQL. but for others within the IBM i neighborhood, including the dealer OpenLegacy, modernization refers to exposing existing business common sense as APIs via a microservices architecture.

Microservices refers to a application development technique whereby purposes are damaged down into dissimilar self-contained accessories and served via APIs in a loosely coupled but coordinated method. The leading knowledge of this strategy is each and every microservice is developed independently of others, that may raise productiveness and outcomes in additional resilient purposes. It’s fairly an awful lot the direct philosophical opposite of the monolithic strategy behind many (if not most) IBM i applications.

The up to date distributed microservices architecture is identical in some respects to the provider oriented architecture (SOA) approach that rose to prominence within the early 2000s, including the componentization of enterprise technique and reliance on APIs. besides the fact that children, there are important distinctions that set microservices, including using lighter weight API protocols reminiscent of leisure (in its place of soap and XML) and the use of containerization technologies like Kubernetes and Docker.

whereas microservices had been within the information a bit, they’re nevertheless rather new and there is loads of work being completed in the meanwhile to enhance the tooling that businesses can use to build and expose their personal microservices. A contemporary survey by microservices utility company Perficient discovered that 70% of agencies are investigating microservices architectures, however are facing IT headwinds because the organizations shift to develop into extra agile and DevOps-focused.

Microservices are being adopted with new applications, but that doesn’t imply they’re inappropriate to present ones. A recent pink Hat survey discovered that about practically 80% of users of its Kubernetes platform, known as OpenShift, were microservices as part of their efforts to re-architect current applications.

To make certain, there are a number of studies of corporations adopting microservices applied sciences and strategies to profit extra cost from legacy programs. In its contemporary whitepaper “How APIs Can Modernize Legacy programs,” API administration enterprise MuleSoft discusses how several tremendous corporations like Siemens and Mount Sinai fitness equipment re-architected enterprise approaches housed in legacy techniques like IBM mainframes round APIs, which more suitable access to the techniques while cutting back upkeep charges.

MuleSoft supports the IBM i platform with its API administration platform. which you could additionally discover IBM i aid with some of the right-tier API administration providers, corresponding to IBM with its connect offering, CA applied sciences and its Layer 7 offering, and Google with its Apigee offering.

APIs are a core enabling component of microservices. but more and more businesses are looking for microservices platforms to assist speed up the introduction of a microservices structure in their atmosphere. One dealer constructing this sort of microservice platform for IBM i is OpenLegacy.

A microservices architecture permits company common sense to be referred to as by means of APIs in decentralized and resilient vogue. (image courtesy Smartbear.)

the brand new Jersey-based mostly business has been plying the software modernization waters for IBM mainframe and IBM i with its API-centric providing seeing that it burst onto the scene a few years ago. at the time, the company became espousing its means to re-kit and expose business techniques on IBM i and mainframe techniques as individual cleaning soap and relaxation APIs.

but as momentum has developed round microservices, OpenLegacy has tailored its API strategy and adopted the microservices approach to legacy modernization, in keeping with OpenLegacy Chief Product Officer Zeev Avidan. “Two years in the past we had been firstly of that adventure,” Avidan tells IT Jungle. but now we’re providing a complete microservice architecture out of the box.”

The company’s microservices-based mostly utility integration platform has a couple of components, Avidan says. There’s a Java-primarily based software development kit (SDK) that exposes someone enterprise technique as an API and additionally enables users so as to add new capabilities, such as analytics or safety. This JDK generates a standard Java object that be served from the IBM i server or some other atmosphere with a JVM. The runtime ambiance instantiates what’s referred to as a microservices “mesh” that enables the functions to be invoked. There’s also a administration console that lets administrators handle what’s occurring.

OpenLegacy is gaining traction with its microservice offering within the banking and coverage box, Avidan says. The business has diverse valued clientele worldwide which are exposing IBM i and mainframe company processes as microservices by the use of rest APIs.

“It allows them to create digital providing and digital interfaces that pull facts form their mainframe, and doing it without using any middleware,” Avidan says. “so they don’t need MQ or any of those things. It’s an immediate connection. It’s scalable and it performs very well.”

There’s nothing stopping IBM i and mainframe purchasers from establishing their personal microservices. “It’s now not unattainable to do. you could fully create APIs the usage of these thoughts,” Avidan says. “The difficulty with it is all that work is guide.”

To get a headstart on microservices, many agencies pay techniques integrators to generate APIs for them, which they can then expose as part of a microservices structure. while that can also work, it doesn’t go away the customer with the capability to alternate and adapt these microservices going ahead, Avidan says.

“What you really need isn't a person to go and construct it for you,” he says. “What you really need and what our valued clientele recognize, is you want that muscle of creating the functions yourselves, as a result of it truly is a core competency nowadays. in case you’re now not able to stream fast and aid the company when it comes to developing those functions, then that’s a problem . . . . You want the muscle and the most beneficial method to try this is to have a set of equipment and know-how to do it your self.”

OpenLegacy isn’t the handiest dealer concentrated on IBM i APIs and microservices. Rocket application also has an offering in this area, known as Rocket API, whereas LANSA additionally has the capability to generate RESTful functions with its “low code” construction ambiance. Rogue Wave application‘s Zend subsidiary is also chasing the market with its XML Toolkit, and there are absolutely others.

Whichever equipment and ideas you employ to generate microservices, there’s a pretty good probability that microservices will play a greater popular function in IBM i utility modernization within the foreseeable future.

related stories

visual LANSA Goes Low-Code With high Tech update

One IBM i Route Into the API economy

Goodbye, Java commercial enterprise version. hi there, Jakarta EE

Don’t Be the Eeyore of Digital growth, OpenLegacy Says

What’s Legacy Now: WSDLs and stored processes

For OpenLegacy, Modernization Is All in regards to the APIs


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C9530-519 exam Dumps Source : IBM API Connect v. 5.0.5 Solution Implementation

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IBM API Connect v. 5.0.5 Solution Implementation

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VMworld Europe 2018 News Bits | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

November 6th, 2018 by Adam Armstrong

Our News Bits is a roundup that typically covers news pieces that are just small in content, not in impact. This gives content room to breath even if it comes in less than what we normally cover. This year at VMworld Europe in Barcelona, there were several announcements that either small or would potentially get wiped out by some of the larger announcements so we have collected them here. Announcements come from companies such as VMware, Dell Technologies, IBM, AWS, Kubernetes, and Heptio.

VMware To Acquire Heptio

In order to bolster its Kubernetes solutions, VMware entered a definitive agreement to acquire Heptio. Heptio was founded by two of the creators of Kubernetes and aims to help companies deploy and operationalize Kubernetes. The transaction is expected to close in VMware's fiscal fourth quarter 2019, subject to customary closing conditions, including regulatory approvals.

Heptio

VMware Unveils VMware Blockchain & Project Dimension

VMware announced new technologies in beta including its Blockchain and Project Dimension. For its Blockchain technology, VMware partnered with Dell Technologies, Deloitte and WWT. The areas this technology set out to address are: 

  • True decentralized trust, with the ability to deploy nodes across multiple different cloud environments including on-premises managed nodes;
  • Robust day-two operations, supported by VMware Blockchain’s availability as a managed SaaS platform, single pane of glass management interface and enterprise monitoring and auditing tools
  • Developer-friendly offerings, which includes tooling for smart contract CI/CD; rich developer guides, API documentation and sample code and an open source foundation in Project Concord.
  • Also in beta is the company’s Project Dimension (VMware is partnering with Dell EMC and Lenovo on this project) which they state will enable customers to consume infrastructure that physically resides in data centers, branch or edge sites through a cloud-managed, as-a-Service approach.

    VMware Introduces Cloud Foundation 3.5

    VMware announced the latest version of its integrated hybrid cloud offering, Cloud Foundation 3.5. New features and capabilities include:

  • Increased Flexibility:
  • VMware will validate this latest release of VMware Cloud Foundation with Dell EMC vSAN Ready Nodes on Dell EMC PowerEdge MX, with increased integration expected over time. PowerEdge MX is Dell EMC’s kinetic infrastructure, which was designed for the software-defined data center, with customizable modules of compute, storage and networking. A proven, complete hyperconverged software solution, VMware Cloud Foundation offers ecosystem support for all VMware vSAN ReadyNodes.
  • Support for composable features will be delivered through deep integration between VMware SDDC Manager and HPE Synergy Composer which is powered by HPE OneView. Customers can now dynamically compose physical resources using the VMware Cloud Foundation user interface to meet the needs of applications running on Workload Domains, thus increasing overall operational efficiency and automation.
  • Expanded Customer Use Cases:
  • Integration with VMware NSX-T 2.3 – which simplifies the implementation of network and security tasks around Kubernetes – will enable support for containerized and cloud-native application use cases. This includes support for VMware PKS, the enterprise-grade Kubernetes solution.
  • Previously, VMware Cloud Foundation 3.0 introduced support for multi-site use cases including the use of vSAN Stretched Clusters as well as the quick and easy movement of workloads across private and public clouds using NSX Hybrid Connect.
  • Latest VMware Product Innovations:
  • VMware Cloud Foundation 3.5 will include support for recent VMware product releases including vSphere 6.7 Update 1, featuring simple and efficient management at scale, built-in security for applications, infrastructure, data and access as well as increased support for artificial intelligence (AI) and ML workloads, among other capabilities. Integration with VMware NSX-T 2.3 will enable support for container environments as well as a simplified workflow and a new search interface to allow administrators to search for objects and events within the NSX-T system and perform operations quickly. The new release will also feature VMware vRealize Automation 7.5 with broadened developer use case support through VMware PKS integration for Kubernetes cluster management. VMware vRealize Operations 7.0 will enable customers to adopt a ‘self-driving’ approach to monitoring and managing their data centers and cloud environments.
  • VMware Cloud Foundation

    IBM & VMware Advance Partnership

    IBM announced that it was expanding its partnership with VMware to enable a fully automated, highly available managed global cloud architecture for mission-critical VMware workloads designed to help enterprises prevent downtime for cloud applications and automate failovers within an IBM Cloud region. The two companies announced more joint technology such as the integration of IBM Cloud for VMware Solutions with IBM Cloud Kubernetes Service, VMware vRealize Operations is now available on IBM Power Systems, and VMware will now use Watson for improving customer service. 

    VMware IBM solutions

    AWS & VMware Accelerate Roll Out Of VMware Cloud on AWS

    AWS announced that it would be working with VMware to accelerate the roll out of VMware Cloud on AWS in both Europe and the United States. The companies announced that in the fourth quarter of 2018 new regions would be forthcoming including AWS EU (Ireland), AWS West (N. California) and AWS East (Ohio). 

    VMware Cloud on AWS

    VMware Introduces New Innovations For Workspace ONE

    VMware introduced new innovations and capabilities to its Workspace ONE platform. These include:

  • Workspace ONE Intelligence Automation Connector: Workspace ONE Intelligence, a cloud-based service that provides insights and analytics with automated remediation capabilities across a digital workspace environment, can now be leveraged with third-party systems via the Workspace ONE Intelligence Automation Connector. Building on existing out-of-box connectors to Slack and ServiceNow, the connector provides a way for customers to connect automated actions and notifications created in Workspace ONE Intelligence with their existing systems such as service desk platforms. 
  • Workspace ONE Sensors for macOS: Workspace ONE Sensors enable customers to query any system attribute from silicon to software (firmware, BIOS, peripherals, apps, etc.) for visibility and compliance enforcement. This capability was previously announced for Windows 10 and today VMware is announcing the general availability of Sensors for macOS.
  • Dell Provisioning for Workspace ONE now with Dell ProDeploy Client Suite: Dell Provisioning for VMware Workspace ONE is a service that preconfigures devices in the factory and ships them directly to end users for a ready-to-work experience with all Windows applications pre-loaded and available immediately to users on first boot. Today, VMware and Dell announced this service is now part of Dell ProDeploy Client Suite, which offers comprehensive deployment services that complement the provisioning service. This service can be purchased together with a new Workspace ONE license at a special combined rate as part of ProDeploy.
  • Integration with Flexera AdminStudio for Easy Win32 App Publishing: Customers can now publish existing desktop applications directly from Flexera AdminStudio into their Workspace ONE catalog, avoiding costly and complex re-packaging of Win32 apps.
  • General Availability of Instant Clones and App Volumes for Horizon 7 on VMware Cloud on AWS: VMware Cloud on AWS now supports Horizon 7 Instant Clones, App Volumes and User Environment Manager for just-in-time provisioning of stateless virtual desktops. Customers can spin up virtual desktops at an average rate of 1-2 seconds per desktop, and instant clones reduce storage consumed by up to 80 percent.
  • Consolidated Monitoring and Management: VMware is announcing integration of Horizon 7 with the Horizon Cloud Service. This integration provides unified visibility, health monitoring and helpdesk services for Horizon 7 deployments both on VMware Cloud on AWS and on premises infrastructure.
  • Automated Installation of Horizon 7 on VMware Cloud on AWS: VMware is previewing the ability to automate several steps of the Horizon 7 installation on VMware Cloud on AWS via the Horizon Cloud Service integration. This will greatly reduce the install time for Horizon 7 on VMC on AWS with streamlined UI for installation.
  • VMware Workspace ONE Boxer: Workspace ONE Boxer now supports G-Suite corporate email, enabling organizations looking to leverage Google to manage email.
  • Workspace ONE Intelligence for Workspace ONE Secure Productivity Apps: VMware has built connectors to Workspace ONE Intelligence so organizations can get insights into app engagement, crash rates, login times, user behavior, and more.
  • Support for Samsung DeX: Users can now access the Workspace ONE family of apps both on-the-go on their mobile device and connect their Galaxy S8, Note8, S9, Note9 and Tab S4 to a monitor, keyboard and mouse for a desktop computing experience with Samsung DeX. Employees can use their phone to open the VMware apps, use keyboard shortcuts, and drag and drop files all on the big screen.
  • Workspace ONE


    Relation of Middleware to Microservices, Docker, and Cloud-Native Architectures | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The IT world is moving forward fast. I wrote about Microservices and whether that spells the death of the Enterprise Service Bus and other middleware a year ago. This article is a “follow-up” and update to discuss how relevant microservices, containers, and a cloud-native architecture is for middleware. It is unbelievable how fast enterprises of all sizes are moving forward with these topics!

    Today, in June 2016, many enterprises have already adopted containers and cloud-native architectures or are adopting them. This topic is also getting more and more relevant for middleware vendors. Therefore, let’s do an update about the status quo of microservices, containers, and cloud-native architectures in the middleware world.

    Key takeaways of this article:

  • A cloud-native architecture enables flexible and agile development, deployment, and operations of all kinds of software
  • Modern middleware leverages containers, microservices, and a cloud-native architecture
  • Packaging and isolation in containers is not enough, there are many more concepts to understand and leverage
  • The Momentum of Microservices and Docker

    The main goal of microservices and containers is a shorter time to results and increased flexibility for development, deployment, and operations of software. Why has it received so much momentum in the last few months? Because almost any enterprise beyond tech giants such as Amazon, Google, Facebook, or Netflix struggles here significantly.

    Microservices is like a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA): It is an architectural concept and vendor respectively technology independent. Therefore, no clear standard definition or specification is available. You always need to define what you mean with the term microservices before you discuss it with others. Everybody has a different definition. For this article microservices are services that are developed, deployed, and scaled independently. They are not specific to any technology and can offer business or integration logic. Several vendors offer specific support for building microservices (as we will see later in the article) but basically it is not related to any technology.

    While the discussion about microservices architectures started with a famous article by Martin Fowler back in 2014 the actual widespread implementation was intially started by Netflix which open-sourced plenty of frameworks for implementing microservices. We will come back to many of these later, and a lot of the content in the article is inspired by Netflix’ awesome and detailed tech blog posts.

    A Container is dependent on the operating system it runs on. Containers use the resource isolation features of the Linux kernel such as kernel namespaces (isolates an application’s view of the operating environment including process trees, network, user IDs and mounted file systems) and cgroups (provides resource limiting, including the CPU, memory, block I/O and network), and a union-capable file system such as aufs and others. This allows independent containers to run within a single Linux instance, avoiding the overhead of starting and maintaining virtual machines.

    Key differentiators of containers compared to VMs are packaging, portability, created as fit for purpose and therefore lower footprint and startup times, repeatability, better resource utilization of servers, and better integration into the whole development ecosystem (such as Continuous Integration/Delivery lifecycle). Containers with your applications can be built, ship, and run anywhere: on your laptop, on test systems, in pre-production, and in production systems. This is all without changes to any content of the container and the application inside.

    In contrary to microservices, there are several specific implementations of container software. Most of the momentum these days is behind Docker. Its ecosystem is growing daily. This will definitely consolidate again in the coming years, but it will also become much more mature than it is today. Other examples for container technologies are CoreOS’ rkt (Rocket) or Cloud Foundry’s Garden / Warden. Notice that all these container concepts are nothing new, but leveraged in UNIX systems for years, for example, take a look at Solaris Zones.

    Other commercial examples are VMware Photon Platform / vSphere Integrated Containers or Microsoft’s Windows Server containers / Hyper-V containers or VMware Thinapp.

    A great introduction to Docker—and containers in general—can be found here: Docker, the Future of DevOps. "The Open Container Initiative (OCI)"—an Open Standard for Containers—was created in mid-2015 to establish a global, vendor-agnostic standard. Many software vendors are part of the committee, including Amazon, Intel, Docker, Facebook, IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, Pivotal, and VMware, to name a few of the many official supporters.

    A Cloud-Native Architecture

    Microservices and containers with their independent services and flexible deployment are just the foundation. The following sections discuss additional requirements for a cloud-native architecture. Please be aware that a lot of examples for available frameworks are listed in every section but they are not intended to be complete lists.

    A cloud-native architecture enables:

  • Scalable services
  • Resiliency
  • High uptime
  • Automatic load balancing and failover
  • DevOps
  • Usage of public cloud platforms but also private or hybrid
  • Vendor-agnostic deployment
  • Faster upgrades
  • Higher utilization and lower infrastructure cost
  • Shorter time to results and increased flexibility
  • With all this you can focus on innovation and solving your business problems instead of spending your time with plenty of technical issues in ”static and inflexible legacy architectures”. Be aware that cloud-native does not mean that you can deploy software just in the public cloud. Private or hybrid cloud deployments are also contained in the definition of cloud-native!

    Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery

    Continuous Integration (CI) and Continuous Delivery (CD) require a lot of different things to automatically build, deploy and run microservices. This includes scripting for automatic test and deployment, internal and external service discovery and distributed configuration of microservices and containers.

    Scripting / Automatic Test and Deployment

    This is what CI / CD began with several years ago. You build, test and deploy services automatically. This improved productivity, efficiency, and product quality. The following frameworks and tools are used to create scripts for enabling CI / CD:

    Service Discovery

    We have to work with plenty of different independent services and a huge number of distributed instances of each service. An internal service discovery framework is used to locate services for the purpose of load balancing and failover. Therefore, a service provider registers to the registry when it is available. Consumers discover the service from the registry to be able to connect and consume it.

    A lot of options are available for using a service registry, such as Netflix’ Eureka, Apache Zookeeper, Consul, Etcd. Many of the later discussed frameworks also include a service registry implicitly. It is not always easy to classify each of the frameworks in this article for just one component. Often the features are overlapping.

    In addition to an internal service discovery, an external service discovery framework is used to expose internal microservices to the outside world (which can be the public internet, just partners or other internal departments). This is often called an “Open API initiative” or “API Management” and offers features such as a portal for easy packaging and self-provisioning of APIs (i.e. microservices in this case), monetization and a gateway for security enforcement (e.g. authentication, authorization, throttling). Some relevant options for API Management are:

  • JBoss apiman: Open source, low-level coding framework, can leverage other Red Hat JBoss projects
  • Apigee: Pure player in the API Management market
  • Akana (former SOA Software): Pure player in the API Management market
  • CA’s Layer7: Strong security gateway, can leverage other CA products
  • TIBCO’s Mashery: Strong portal and community, can leverage other TIBCO products, including TIBCO API Exchange Gateway for advanced security and routing requirements
  • See the following article for more details about use cases and product categorization for “Open API”: API Management as a Game Changer for Cloud, Big Data, and IoT.

    Dynamic Distributed Configuration Management

    Numerous agile and dynamic changes in a cloud-native architecture demand that you cannot manage configuration manually anymore when adopting distributed microservices and containers. Services are designed to fail, respawn and get updated frequently. Therefore, you need automated configuration to setup new containers on distributed nodes quickly and automatically. Some required features:

  • Make changes dynamically at runtime (e.g. change service behavior, database connection or log level of a specific instance)
  • Change multi-dimensional properties based on a complex request or deployment context
  • Enable / disable features based on the request context (e.g. display of a specific user interface for a specific region or device)
  • Change behavior of cloud design patterns (see the later section “Resiliency Design Patterns”)
  • Two relevant frameworks for dynamic distributed configuration management are Netflix’ Archaius and Spring Cloud Config. These frameworks use polling and callback mechanisms for dynamic configuration as the traditional push concept (to specific IP addresses and hosts) does not work in elastic and ever changing cloud-native environments.

    Scalability and Failover

    A key feature of a cloud-native architecture is the ability of elastic scaling depending on load and SLAs. This requires advanced cluster management, server-side and client-side load balancing, and resilient design patterns.

    Cluster Management (Scheduling and Orchestration)

    Flexible development and deployment is a key advantage of microservices and containers. New features are added and old ones pruned. Zero-downtime and failover are required but you also need efficient usage of your resources.

    A cluster manager is designed for failover and high scalability. It is used to automatically orchestrate container scheduling and managing hosts including the application of rules and constraints to each host.

    Various cluster management frameworks are already available especially for Docker. The following examples are some of the most relevant (and discussed in more detail here):

  • Docker Swarm: A Docker-native framework, uses the Docker API, can easily leverage other Docker frameworks such as Docker Compose, it has to be combined with other frameworks such as etcd, Consul or ZooKeeper
  • CoreOS Fleet: Low-level framework built directly on systemd, often used as “foundation layer” for higher-level solutions
  • Kubernetes: Open sourced by Google and adopted by many other companies including IBM, Red Hat and Microsoft. Kubernetes is a great mix of sophisticated features and relatively simple installation / configuration. In contrast to some other sophisticated cluster managers you can even set it up on your local machine for development with just a single “Docker run” command. If you install it on a cloud platform it leverages the platforms specific features, for example on AWS it uses Amazons ELB while it leverages Googles LB on Google Cloud Platform.
  • Mesos’ Marathon: An orchestration framework on top of the powerful (but complex) Apache Mesos, a “distributed systems kernel.” Mesos is intended for large scale and multi-use of different frameworks on top of it (e.g. Apache Hadoop, containers via Marathon, batch processing via Chronos).
  • Load Balancing (Server-side and Client-side)

    Servers come and go in a cloud-native architecture. Load balancing needs to become much more sophisticated (and therefore complex) with microservices and containers. Just distributing load based on well-known IP addresses and hosts is not sufficient anymore. Concepts such as weighted load balancing based on several factors like traffic, resource usage or error conditions provide superior resiliency.

    Traditional server-side load balancing is used for years to distribute network or application traffic across a number of servers and to increase capacity and reliability of applications. Well-known examples are F5’s Big-IP products or Amazon AWS Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) service. They are used for so-called edge services i.e. external service consumers respectively end-user web traffic.

    In addition, many microservices architectures include client-side load balancing to avoid unnecessary inter-service communication. Therefore frameworks such as Netflix Ribbon “embed” the client-side LB into each microservice. This reduces the communication to one hop instead of two hops for service communication between internal microservices, so-called mid-tier or core services.

    Resilience Design Patterns

    All the new concepts for a cloud-native architecture require new design patterns to offer a general repeatable solution to commonly occurring problems. Resilience design patterns prevent cascading failures, allow failing fast and recover rapidly by implementing logic for latency tolerance, fault tolerance, and failback logic.

    One of the most well-known patterns is the Circuit Breaker which is used to detect failures and encapsulate logic for preventing a failure to reoccur constantly (during maintenance, temporary external system failure or unexpected system difficulties). The Akka framework has a nice explanation and implementation of this pattern. Netflix Hystrix also offers sophisticated implementations to enable latency and fault tolerance in distributed systems. “Application Resiliency Using Netflix Hystrix” is a great post by the Ebay Tech Blog explaining how they leveraged it to realize cloud patterns.

    There are plenty of cloud patterns emerging (and more will come in the future). For example, the Kubernetes Tech Blog explains “Patterns for Composite Containers” such as “Sidecar Containers,” “Ambassador Containers,” or “Adapter Containers”.

    Container Solution Stacks

    As you have seen in the above sections, there are plenty of frameworks and tool chains available. The number is growing every month. This might remind many readers of Apache Hadoop and its unbelievably growing ecosystem with mature and less mature frameworks. The same is true for containers today. Therefore some “solution stacks” are emerging to help getting started and managing all the different challenges with one single (and commercially supported) container stack—well known as “distribution” in the Hadoop environment. Examples for container solution stacks are Tectonic (a Kubernetes + CoreOS Platform), Docker Datacenter, Mantl or HashiCorp’s Nomad. More will probably arise in the next months.

    We have now discussed several concepts, frameworks, and patterns to realize a cloud-native architecture leveraging containers and microservices. However, you also need some kind of cloud platform where you deploy and run all this on.

    Private, Public, or Hybrid Cloud-Native Platform

    A cloud-native platform is a private, public or hybrid cloud which offers a self-service and agile cloud infrastructure (Infrastructure-as-a-Service, IaaS). On top of a cloud infrastructure, you need a platform (Platform-as-a-Service, PaaS) where you can deploy and run your containers. The following picture shows the key characteristics of both:

    image

     

    Most enterprises select available mature offerings such as Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure or open source OpenStack for IaaS and PaaS platforms such as Red Hat’s OpenShift (which is based on Docker and Kubernetes) or Cloud Foundry (offered open source and enhanced by several vendors such as IBM with Bluemix or Pivotal).

    The key advantage of using an existing PaaS platform is the out-of-the-box support for most requirements of a cloud-native architecture such as elastic scalability, container orchestration, dynamic service discovery, load balancing, or dynamic distributed configuration management. Thus, you should evaluate different PaaS platforms before deciding to build your own one based on all the different frameworks discussed above. Most platforms leverage one or the other of these frameworks implicitly.

    After discussing all the requirements and available frameworks for a cloud-native architecture in much detail let’s now take a look at how all this is related to middleware.

    Relation to Middleware (Integration, API Management, Event Processing)

    Before going on, I have to clarify: Microservices, containers, and cloud-native architectures are not suitable for all scenarios. Remember: These introduce a lot of new concepts and complexity. “Microservices are not a free lunch”!

    I will focus especially on integration platforms in the following paragraphs because integration is key for success in most middleware projects. Due to trends such as cloud, mobile, big data and Internet of Things you cannot survive without good integration in IT architectures.

    An Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is used in many enterprises as a strategic integration platform between custom applications, commercial-off-the-shelf software, legacy applications, databases, and cloud services. However not every ESB deployment needs to be cloud-native. In mission-critical deployments at banks, retailers, airlines, telcos, and others a central ESB with high performance, high availability, and fault-tolerance might still be the best choice for the next few decades.

    On the other hand, an ESB is not the complex, central and heavyweight beast you might think of. This might have been true 5 to 10 years ago (and one of the reasons several SOA projects failed that time) and it might still be true for some vendors today. But in general (and valid for many vendors) an Enterprise Service Bus in 2016 is a mature, stable and easy to use component, which should offer:

  • Integration
  • Orchestration and Choreography
  • APIs and Business Services
  • Messaging
  • Independent Deployments
  • Scalable and Lightweight Platform
  • Automation
  • Based on your requirements you should be able to decide how cloud-native you need to be and if you should leverage microservices and containers (and all their pros and cons) or not. Select only the concepts, tools and features you really need.

    Middleware Examples

    Having said that let’s take a look at a few different middleware examples and how you might leverage microservices, containers and a cloud-native architecture for them:

  • Integration: Build (micro)services and APIs using the integration capabilities of the ESB; integrate and orchestrate different (micro)services (build composite services)
  • API Management: Expose, publish and monetize microservices internal or to partners and the public world via APIs.
  • Event Processing: Correlate distributed microservice events in real time to add business value (e.g. fraud detection, cross-selling or predictive maintenance)
  • All the above middleware components

  • Require agility and flexibility
  • Control and leverage other microservices
  • Have to support microservice characteristics itself (containers, CI / CD, elastic scalability, etc.) to fit into a cloud-native architecture and to allow quick changes
  • Let’s come back to the example of integration platforms and the ESB. If you need a more flexible, cloud-native integration solution instead of a classical, more central ESB deployment then you have three options (but do not care about the branding or shortcut of the product name):

    Integration Middleware on Top of a PaaS

    This is very similar to an on-premise ESB and used for implementing “core services” i.e. central, often complex and mission-critical services. Development is done in the traditional IDE. However, the key difference is that the solution is cloud-native i.e. it supports containers and microservices. You use this kind of integration middleware to develop integration applications that are deployed natively onto a PaaS platform such as Cloud Foundry or OpenShift. Some vendors offer a vendor-agnostic solution where you can deploy your integration applications anywhere without relying on a specific cloud platform or vendor.

    You can develop different “cloud-native services” to be more agile, change quicker, and provide web scale:

  • Integration Apps and Services: Build consumable Web APIs out of backend web services like ERP, CRM, order management using enterprise technologies like SOAP, SAP, Oracle, IBM MQ, etc.
  • Functional Microservices: Build apps focusing on business functionality without getting into code complexity
  • API Choreography Services: Visually choreograph APIs leveraging the PaaS integration tooling (e.g. process orchestration, data mapper or connectors)
  • There are not many alternatives available on the market for building integration applications that are deployed natively onto a PaaS platform. TIBCO BusinessWorks Container Edition is a vendor-agnostic example supporting CloudFoundry, Docker, Kubernetes, AWS ECS, etc. JBoss Middleware Services allows the deployment of its middleware applications (including JBoss Fuse and A-MQ) onto OpenShift.

    Cloud Integration Middleware (iPaaS)

    An iPaaS Cloud Integration middleware is cloud-based, uses a web browser instead of a desktop IDE and supports the execution of integration flows, the development and life cycle management of integrations, the management and monitoring of application flows, governance and essential cloud features such as multi-tenancy, elasticity, and self-provisioning. iPaaS can work closely together with an on-premise ESB or integration middleware on top of a PaaS platform.

    iPaaS tooling offers intuitive web-based integration and is intended for people with some technical understanding e.g. how to create and deploy REST services or to configure connections and policies of Open APIs. It is usually used to build “edge services”, sometimes also called “microflows” which might change more frequently and which are often not that mission-critical.

    Some examples for iPaaS solutions are Dell Boomi, Informatica Cloud, MuleSoft Anypoint Platform, SnapLogic, Jitterbit, or TIBCO Cloud Integration.

    A more detailed overview including the pros and cons of iPaaS can be found here: “iPaaS: What this cloud technology is and why it’s important”.

    SaaS Cloud Integration Middleware (iSaaS)

    This kind of SaaS solution offers an intuitive web-based user interface for the business user i.e. the “Citizen Integrator” to realize personal integration without technical knowledge according to the do-it-yourself (DIY) principle. Citizen Integrators build new integration flows by configuring them rather than developing and building them from scratch. For instance, a business user creates an automatic flow to synchronize his data via self-service from SaaS offerings such as Salesforce or Marketo and his Microsoft Excel sheets.

    iSaaS integrations are clearly complementary to on-premise, PaaS and iPaaS integrations. They should also be viewed as “edge services” which are not strategic and mission-critical for the enterprise–but very relevant for the specific business user. Examples for iSaaS solutions are SnapLogic, TIBCO Simplr, or IFTTT.

    Hybrid Integration Platform (HIP)

    A key for success is that you can transfer content across different platforms. Gartner calls this a Hybrid Integration Platform (HIP). Different components share metadata, one single IDE, and consolidated operations management. Out-of-the-box integration capabilities with API Management components (API gateway and portal) are also very important for agile development, deployment, and operations.

    For example, you might want to develop an orchestration service with a PaaS-based integration solution and want to port that to an on-premise integration platform later. Or you might want to define a REST service (via “contract first principle”) with an iPaaS middleware with a mock for early testing and later implement it on an on-premise ESB. The same service also needs to be exposed via an API to partner or for public access.

    Some more Middleware Frameworks and Vendors

    Finally, I want to highlight some other frameworks and vendors, which might be relevant for realizing your cloud-native microservices but were not mentioned in the article yet:

  • WSO2 Microservices Framework for Java is a good example for a low-level coding framework based on top of the vendors open source middleware.
  • Amazon EC2 Container Service (ECS) and Google Container Engine are two examples of “Containers as a service (CaaS)” offerings which allow self-service usage of containers as SaaS solution
  • Cloud vendors such as Amazon, Microsoft, or Google are also middleware vendors in the meantime. For example, Amazon AWS offers services for cloud messaging (SQS and others), streaming and analytics (Kinesis), containers (ECS), microservices (Lambda) and more.
  • Plenty of other middleware vendors also work on cloud-native offerings. For more details see e.g. Software AG Cloud, Talend Integration Cloud, or Oracle Cloud Platform.
  • Middleware for the Internet of Things (IoT) is another sector which grows significantly these days. For example, take a look at open source integration solutions such as Node-RED (based on js, open sourced by IBM) or Flogo (based on Google’s Go Programming Language, to be released and open sourced by TIBCO very soon). Both offer a zero-code environment with web IDE for building and deploying integration and data processing directly onto connected devices using IoT standards such as MQTT, WebSockets, or CoaP.
  • Finally, I would like to mention The Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) which might become much more relevant in the future for plenty of frameworks discussed in this article. The CNCF was founded to help facilitate collaboration among developers and operators on common technologies for deploying cloud-native applications and services built on containers. Founding members included Google, Cisco, IBM, Docker, and VMware. The first two projects hosted by CNCF are Kubernetes and Prometheus.

    Microservices, Containers, and Cloud-Native Architectures Do NOT Fit into Every Project…

    … but they have a huge influence on our thinking about IT architectures. In many new projects, these concepts absolutely make sense and create a lot of benefits such as flexible development, deployment, and operations. Think about the trade-offs and leverage the parts of a cloud-native architecture which make sense for your project. Modern middleware will leverage microservices, containers, and cloud-native architectures! No matter if you take a look at Integration, API Management, Event Processing, Streaming Analytics, Business Process Management, or any other kind of on-premise or cloud middleware.

    Thanks for reading this extensive article. I think it is very relevant for all of us, no matter if you implement custom applications or leverage middleware in your projects. As always, I appreciate any feedback and discussions via Comment, Email, Twitter, or LinkedIn.

    By the way: The content of this article is also discussed in a slide deck which I first presented in April 2016 at JPoint in Moscow, Russia:

    Microservices, Containers, Docker and a Cloud-Native Architecture in the Middleware World from Kai Wähner


    New Architecture of OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect Implementation | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    1. Semi-Hosted Service Pattern

    This article describes details about a new architecture of OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect implementation which is categorized as "Semi-Hosted Service" pattern in “Deployment and Hosting Patterns in OAuth”.

    In the pattern, a frontend server (an authorization server and an OpenID provider) utilizes a backend service which provides APIs to help the frontend server implement OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect. Authlete is a real-world example of such backend services. The figure below illustrates the relationship between a frontend server and a backend service (Authlete).

    The primary advantage of this architecture is in that the backend service can focus on implementing OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect without caring about other components such as identity management, user authentication, login session management, API management and fraud detection. And, consequently, it leads to another major advantage which enables the backend service (implementation of OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect) to be combined with any solution of other components and thus gives flexibility to frontend server implementations.

    2. User Authentication

    Although RFC 6749 (The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework) explicitly states as follows:

    The way in which the authorization server authenticates the resource owner (e.g., username and password login, session cookies) is beyond the scope of this specification.

    , most implementations provide both user authentication and authorization combinedly as a package solution because user authentication is included as a step in authorization process as illustrated below (see “3. Authentication and Authorization” in “Full-Scratch Implementor of OAuth and OpenID Connect Talks About Findings” for details). To put the other way around, rather, it's because it is difficult to separate user authentication from OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect implementation.

    Such package solutions often offer mechanisms to customize user authentication process (e.g. editable authorization page, common interface over underlying identity management system, hooks in page transitions). However, this approach makes it difficult to adopt a new user authentication mechanism whose flow is considerably different from the ones assumed by the package solutions.

    On the other hand, Authlete has adopted the semi-hosted service pattern in order to eliminate the need itself to abstract the way of user authentication. Authlete requires only a result of user authentication and does not care about how the result has been obtained. Consequently, Authlete can be combined with any user authentication solution.

    You may wonder what is a result of user authentication. Regardless of how a user is authenticated (e.g. by ID and password, fingerprint, iris, hardware token, random table, and whatever), from a technical point of view, user authentication is a process to identify a unique user identifier. That is, a result of user authentication is a user ID.

    2.1. How to Push Out User Authentication?

    The figure below is a diagram of the Authorization Code Flow defined in “4.1. Authorization Code Grant” in RFC 6749. (You can find the same figure in “Diagrams And Movies Of All The OAuth 2.0 Flows”.)

    The client application makes an authorization request in the step (2), and the authorization server returns an authorization code in the step (6). User authentication is performed in between (2) and (6). User authentication, however, may be omitted if the user has already been authenticated. In either case, the authorization server has to obtain the user ID before issuing an authorization code because the user ID has to be associated with the authorization code.

    To push out user authentication completely from the implementation of OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect, Authlete has divided the authorization flow into the following three parts:

    (a) Processing the authorization request

    (b) Authenticating the user

    (c) Making the authorization response

    and provides two separate APIs for (a) and (c) only. Authlete does nothing for (b) and leaves it to customers.

    The point is in that the API for (c) requires a result of (b). In other words, API callers must pass a unique user identifier to the API.

    The figure below illustrates how a frontend server and a backend service (Authlete) work together. You can see that user authentication is performed at the frontend server in the step (11) and that the user ID is passed to an Authlete's API (/api/auth/authorization/issue) in the step (12).

    Authorization Code Flow + AUTHLETE 2.2. Other OAuth flows + Authlete

    Just for references.

    Implicit Flow + AUTHLETE Resource Owner Password Credentials Flow + AUTHLETE Client Credentials Flow + AUTHLETE Refresh Token Flow + AUTHLETE 3. API Management

    The growth of the API economy has attracted many companies into the market of API management. Most solutions in the market provide some mechanisms to protect APIs, including protection by OAuth 2.0 access tokens.

    Instead of incorporating functionality of OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect in a complicated manner, some API management solutions have decided to delegate the functionality to external third-party solutions.

    3.1. AWS API Gateway

    One example is AWS API Gateway. It provides a mechanism to delegate validation of bearer tokens (such as OAuth 2.0 tokens) presented by client applications to an external authorizer. The figure below excerpted from “Enable Amazon API Gateway Custom Authorization” illustrates the mechanism.

    Custom Authorizer; mechanism to delegate validation of bearer tokens

    “Lambda Auth function” at the top position in the figure is an authorizer. The implementation of the function receives bearer tokens from API Gateway, validates them, and returns the result of the validation to API Gateway. Based on the result, API Gateway determines whether to accept the request from the client or reject it.

    The implementation of the function itself may in turn delegate the validation to an external authorizer. The figure below is an example which uses Authlete as the external authorizer. Technical details about this are written in “Amazon API Gateway + AWS Lambda + OAuth”.

    Custom Authorizer using Authlete 3.2. IBM API Connect

    IBM API Connect is another example. It has OAuth implementation, but at the same time, it can delegate validation of access tokens to an external authorization server if the server supports RFC 7662 (OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection). Details are written in “Integrating third party OAuth provider” (in IBM Knowledge Center).

    Note for developers:

    APIs built using IBM API Connect require a custom HTTP header, X-IBM-Client-Id, in addition to Authorization header which includes an access token in the way defined in “2.1. Authorization Request Header Field” in RFC 6750. The custom header is required even if access token validation is delegated to a third-party authorization server.

    The following is the command line excerpted from “Using the access token” (in “Tutorial: Securing an API by using OAuth 2.0” in IBM Knowledge Center) (with extra line breaks added for display purpose only).

    curl -k -v \-H "X-IBM-Client-Id: Client_ID" \-H "Authorization: Bearer Access_Token" \-X GET 'Operation_URL'

    A certain major bank in Japan has adopted IBM's solution for its bank API, and now X-IBM-Client-Id is a part of the bank's official API specification (example).

    4. Login Session Management

    Before an OpenID provider issues an ID token, it has to authenticate the user. However, user authentication may be skipped if the user has already logged in the server.

    In the semi-hosted service pattern, login session management is handled by the frontend server (OpenID provider), and the backend service does nothing for it. Because login session management is separated from OAuth and OpenID Connect implementation, developers can choose any solution for login session management (e.g. Apache Shiro) as they like.

    java-oauth-server is a good example that demonstrates login session management can be handled only in the frontend server. The open-source software is an implementation of authorization server and OpenID provider written in Java. It uses Authlete as the backend service.

    When we ran the OpenID Certification test for java-oauth-server for the first time, the test reported some errors related to login session management. We could solve the errors by adding login session management to java-oauth-server. The point is that we didn't have to change any code of the backend service (Authlete) to solve the errors. This has proved login session management can be implemented in the frontend server independently of the backend service.

    5. Identity Management

    Authorization in the context of identity management and authorization in the context of OAuth are different. In the former context, authorization means “who has what permissions”. In the latter context, authorization means “who grants what permissions to whom”. They are different but in some cases you have to handle both simultaneously. This question (“How to verify which resources each user can access with OAuth and OpenID Connect?”) and this answer in Stack Overflow show one of such use cases.

    Some identity management solutions support authorization in the context of OAuth (which may make people confused). However, the semi-hosted service pattern removes the need itself for identity management solutions to support OAuth.

    5.1. Shared User Database

    Suppose there is a system for music service. If we develop APIs of the system with an authorization server which is tightly combined with identity management, the system will look like the figure below. The authorization server holds both a user database and an authorization database.

    An authorization server combined tightly with identity management

    If the company running the music service expands its business and starts a healthcare service and a travel service, and if APIs of the new services are built on top of the existing system, the authorization server is shared as illustrated below even though API servers are prepared independently.

    Multiple services share one authorization server

    Sharing an authorization server among services means that scopes (permissions) and client applications of the services are managed at one place. For example, a permission to create play lists (music service), a permission to refer to the record of body weight (healthcare service) and a permission to reserve hotels (travel service) are managed at one place.

    Because each service usually has a different development team, a different schedule, a different target for API exposure and different client applications, it is desirable to make each service have its own authorization server. At the same time, it is also desirable to share the user pool among services. However, if an authorization server is tightly combined with identity management, it is difficult to have multiple authorization servers for multiple services which share the same user pool.

    On the contrary, what if there exists an authorization server which is not tied to identity management? If you have such an authorization server, you can build a system where each service has its own authorization server but shares the same user pool with other services. The semi-hosted service pattern which clearly separates authorization from identity management enables you to adopt such a system architecture.

    Each service has an authorization server but shares one user pool with other services 5.2. Multiple Authorization Servers

    Even if the architecture where each service can have its authorization server is beautiful, if it requires many man-hours to develop one authorization server, it is difficult to adopt the architecture. But, it is almost okay to expect that implementations (such as Authlete) which by design take multiple authorization servers into consideration offer a mechanism to easily create and delete authorization server instances.

    As an example, the figure below illustrates the steps to create a new instance of authorization server / OpenID provider in Authlete's web console (Service Owner Console). Just three clicks. If it is easy to create an authorization server instance like this, system architects can pursue a better architecture for their OAuth and OpenID Connect implementations.

    6. Extensibility

    Frontend servers are expected to behave as defined in the standard specifications. On the other hand, backend services in the semi-hosted service pattern can design their APIs freely without any restraint.

    The following sections show example extensions that backend services may provide in order to help developers implement authorization servers and OpenID providers.

    6.1. Access Token Creation

    In some use cases, you may want to create access tokens using a different way than the standard flows defined in the specification (RFC 6749). Backend service may provide an API for that purpose.

    Example

    Authlete's /api/auth/token/create API is an example. By using the API, developers can create access tokens without user interaction.

    $ curl ¥--user 4593494640:BBw0rner_-y1A6J9s20wjRCpkBvez3GxEBoL9jOJVR0 \https://api.authlete.com/api/auth/token/create \-d grantType=AUTHORIZATION_CODE \-d clientId=98282920604 \-d subject=user123 \-d scopes=photo 6.2. Extra Data of Access Token

    The following is an excerpt from “5.1. Successful Response” in RFC 6749.

    {"access_token":"2YotnFZFEjr1zCsicMWpAA","token_type":"example","expires_in":3600,"refresh_token":"tGzv3JOkF0XG5Qx2TlKWIA","example_parameter":"example_value"}

    This shows a possibility that non-standard parameters such as example_parameter may be returned when an access token is issued. However, there is no standardized way to associate arbitrary data like example_parameter with an access token.

    Backend services in the semi-hosted service pattern can provide a mechanism to associate arbitrary data with an access token without needing to add proprietary specifications to frontend servers.

    Example

    properties request parameter of some Authlete APIs is an example. By passing an array of key-value pairs via the request parameter, developers can associate arbitrary data with access tokens.

    The following is an example of /api/auth/authorization/issue API call with the properties request parameter.

    $ curl \--user 4593494640:BBw0rner_-y1A6J9s20wjRCpkBvez3GxEBoL9jOJVR0 \https://api.authlete.com/api/auth/authorization/issue \-H 'Content-Type:application/json' \-d "{\"ticket\":\"xKdGvPyPkLJRkmP6MSAJ1wISBmdnSbPG8pFzgTdZh4U\",\"subject\":\"user123\",\"properties\":[{\"key\":\"example_parameter\",\"value\":\"example_value\"},{\"key\":\"hidden_parameter\",\"value\":\"hidden_value\",\"hidden\":true}]}" 6.3. Operations on a User-Client Basis

    In order to enable a user to revoke permissions given to client applications, the service has to display client applications to which the user has given permissions, let the user select client applications, and delete all the access tokens issued to the selected client applications by the user.

    Some authorization server implementations may provide UI for the purpose. On the other hand, backend services in the semi-hosted service pattern would take a different approach - provide APIs instead of UI.

    Example

    Developers can support the use case above by using the following Authlete APIs.

  • /api/client/authorization/get/list
  • /api/client/authorization/delete
  • /api/client/authorization/update
  • 6.4. Record of Granted Permissions

    When a client application wants new permissions in addition to the ones it already has, it sends an authorization request to the authorization server again. As a response to the request, the authorization server will return an authorization page which includes the list of permissions requested by the client application.

    A simple implementation will list all the permissions in the authorization page. On the other hand, a user-friendly implementation may list the new permissions only.

    To implement the user-friendly authorization page, the authorization server has to remember sets of permissions granted to client applications by users. It should be noted that the records of granted permissions cannot be deleted even after all the associated access tokens expire. Otherwise, permissions would be displayed to users again if an authorization request is made after all access tokens expire.

    Some authorization server implementations may provide UI for the purpose. On the other hand, backend services in the semi-hosted service pattern would take a different approach — provide APIs instead of UI.

    Example

    Developers can support the use case above by using the following Authlete APIs. Note that these APIs work on dedicated servers only (don't work on the shared server, api.authlete.com).

  • /api/client/granted_scopes/get
  • /api/client/granted_scopes/delete
  • Summary

    This article explained a new architecture that, instead of providing an authorization server and OpenID provider itself, provides technical components as Web APIs with which developers can develop authorization servers and OpenID providers. This architecture has been named “Semi-Hosted Service Pattern”.

    This architecture draws a clear line between an implementation of OAuth 2.0 / OpenID Connect and other technical components such as user authentication and identity management. I hope developers who seek for better system architectures will notice the advantages of the semi-hosted service pattern.

    Thank you for reading this long article to the end.



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